Europe would therefore have been inhabited by hominins much earlier than previously thought and from migrations that originated in western Asia rather than directly from Africa.
These Kenyan fossils, which were discovered in 2000, had been a source of controversy in terms of their supposed hominin affinities and locomotor capabilities.
The estimated ages for 11 major clades in the Y-chromosome tree ranged from 68,900 to 18,500 years.
Two female figurines carved out of mammoth tusk some 22,000 years ago were among the finds that came to light in 2008 at the Upper Paleolithic site of Zaraysk, 155 km (96 mi) southeast of Moscow.
Among the ruins of the 15-m (50-ft)-long column-lined mausoleum, a team led by archaeologist Daniela Rossi documented about one dozen biographical inscriptions that detailed the career of the Brescia-born general, who had served as a police commissioner and magistrate before playing a key role in the emperor's campaigns against the Germanic tribes of the North.
Prior to its discovery, it was believed that such monumental sites could have been constructed only by the complex civilizations that arose after the adoption of agriculture.
Also in southeastern Turkey, the remains of a Neo-Assyrian governor's palace were unearthed during rescue excavations at Ziyaret Tepe, where the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (ruled 883–859 BC) established his provincial capital of Tushhan in 882 BC.
The mandible was associated with 32 simple stone artifacts, including chert flakes, and with animal remains that clearly showed evidence of human processing.
The site, Sima del Elefante, was located near Gran Dolina and several other sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca that had yielded many pre- was the same taxon to which previously reported remains from Gran Dolina had been assigned.) Similarities to earlier mandibular material from Dmanisi, Georgia, dated to 1.77 million years ago led to the following speculative scenario: hominins that emerged from Africa about 1.8 million years ago settled in the Caucasus and eventually evolved into which in turn populated western Europe by 1.3 million years ago.
The figurines, unearthed from a pair of storage pits, appeared to have been ritually buried.