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The vast majority of these offenders will be released to communities at some point in the future.

Additionally, more than 737,000 registered sex offenders currently reside in communities across the United States (National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 2012).

One study was conducted in Jackson County, OR, where the community corrections office integrated treatment, supervision, and polygraph assessment in a multidisciplinary collaboration model.

The research compared the recidivism rates for sexual offenders who were subject to the containment approach between 19 (= 231) in a matched sample.

Despite the intuitive value of using science to guide decision-making, laws and policies designed to combat sexual offending are often introduced or enacted in the absence of empirical support.

This dynamic was recently acknowledged and identified as a concern by the national experts—both researchers and practitioners—who participated in the February 2012 SOMAPI forum.

In one large-scale systematic review of 291 studies conducted over a 40-year period on various intensive supervision programs used with criminal offenders, the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) found no research support for the effectiveness of community-based Intensive Supervised Probation (ISP) with a primary surveillance orientation in reducing criminal recidivism ( = 24 studies).

Research on the effectiveness of the containment approach has been completed in a handful of jurisdictions across the country.

(For a discussion of adult "Sex Offender Risk Assessment," see chapter 6 in the Adult section.) In terms of strategies used by specialized supervision officers, a survey of probation and parole supervisors (= 732) conducted in 1994 found that 85 percent referred offenders to sex-offender-specific counseling and that 30 percent of probation officers and 32 percent of parole officers had specialized caseloads; however, less than 10 percent required polygraph testing (English, Pullen, & Jones, 1996).

The importance of multidisciplinary collaboration with supervision officers was also supported in a survey of treatment providers from 45 states and the District of Columbia (= 190), where 90 percent said their rapport with probation officers was excellent or good, 24.2 percent said probation officers attended weekly group sessions, and 87.4 percent said communication with probation officers was essential (Mc Grath, Cumming, & Holt, 2002).

The concept of sex offender management has been conceptualized under the construct of a Comprehensive Approach to Sex Offender Management (CASOM) by the Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM).

The CASOM model (CSOM, 2007) includes the following— According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, at yearend 2008 more than 165,000 offenders convicted of rape or sexual assault were in state prisons (Guerino, Harrison, & Sabol, 2011).

While it is difficult to track national trends over time, there is little question that the number of sex offenders under correctional supervision in the community has increased substantially over the past 20 years.

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